Module 1: Menopause
This module gives comprehensive information about the definitions, features and underlying causes of menopause and discusses the typical process and duration for each of the four stages: perimenopausal, menopausal, early postmenopausal and late postmenopausal. Methods for assessment and differential diagnosis of menopausal symptoms are outlined, including indications for further investigation. Four management options are addressed: lifestyle modifications, “natural” or complementary therapies, non-hormone pharmaceutical options and menopause hormone therapy (MHT). It covers existing research for complementary therapies and identifies potential benefits and limitations. Different types of MHT are reviewed including potential benefits and risks, safety considerations, and testing methods based on current evidence. It also acknowledges potential contraindications for MHT and statistics that suggest a lack of observable effectiveness in treating certain health conditions. In conclusion, the module outlines effective courses of action for adjusting treatment and managing complications.
Module 2: Post-menopause health issues
As estrogen deficiency begins to dominate in post menopause and women may experience health issues and escalated risks. This module examines the aetiology, compounding factors and socioeconomic burden, and considers the medical and complementary management of osteoporosis, genito-urinary syndrome, mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. It provides an outline of the risk factors associated with osteoporosis and fragility fractures. It discusses the tools to assess fracture risk as well as the criteria for, and interpretation of, DXA scans. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy are also considered. general care, non-hormonal measures and the role of topical or systemic estrogen therapy. Gentio-urinary syndrome caused by the hypogenic state of post menopause is discussed. The importance of a mental health assessment for post-menopausal women is emphasised including risk factors and management of depression and anxiety. The module concludes with an overview of cardiovascular disease, the risk factors (including the impact of estrogen deficiency), and the evidence and parameters for hormone therapy.
Module 3: Premature ovarian insufficiency
In the first unit of this module definitions of early and premature menopause are given. Risk factors and causes of spontaneous POI are listed. Iatrogenic POI, caused by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery is mentioned. Information about clinical presentations of POI, diagnosis criteria, patient history, examinations, investigations and ongoing monitoring are listed in unit 2. Health consequences may include psychological distress, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sexual dysfunction and other health concerns. Finally, management of POI from initiating care and coordinating care (may include a multidisciplinary approach. Information is provided on managing symptoms of menopause, sexual health difficulties and psychological issues. When managing patients with this condition, consideration needs to be given regarding prevention of bone loss, osteoporosis and prevention of cardiovascular disease.